Tuesday, May 17, 2011

Diabetic Mellitus Disease

Diabetes or sugar disease / diabetes is a disease characterized by hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar levels) are continuous and varied, especially after meals. Other sources mention that the reference to diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia accompanied by metabolic disorders due to hormonal disturbances, which cause a variety of chronic complications in the eyes, kidneys, and blood vessels.

If the body lacks insulin, the glucose in the blood can not enter the cells to be converted into glycogen, resulting in accumulation of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) and finally excreted through the urine (glukosauria).

As a result, the production of urine increased, the patient continues to urinate, feeling very thirsty and losing weight.

Establishment of a major diabetes is due to insufficient production of insulin (diabetes mellitus type 1, which was first known), or less sensitive body tissues to insulin (diabetes mellitus type 2, a more common form). In addition, there are also types of diabetes mellitus caused by insulin resistance that occurs in pregnant women. Type 1 requires insulin injections, while type 2 treated with oral medication and only requires insulin if the medicine is not effective. Diabetic mellitus in pregnancy is generally heal by itself after childbirth.

Understanding and patient participation is very important because the blood glucose level changes continuously, because the success of keeping blood sugar within normal limits may prevent the complications of diabetes. Another factor that may reduce complications are: stop smoking, optimizing cholesterol levels, maintain a stable body weight, controlling high blood pressure, and exercise regularly.

DIABETES THERAPY: ("diet first, if still ill just eat medicine")
• Diet: The main limitation of the total of fatty foods, to reduce levels of glucose and lipids in the blood
• Exercise: morning walk, cycling can reduce insulin resistance for the overweight
• Stop smoking: nicotine inhibits the absorption of glucose by seltubuh, so it can improve blood glucose kadr
• Check your blood sugar: it can be done alone with a test strip or with the help of the laboratory (at least 4 times daily)

• Test strips
Dark color (dark): normal blood sugar
Bright colors (ligth, orange), high blood sugar
• Test blood sugar levels
Standard normal: 6.1 - 7.0
When the results of tests of blood glucose levels> 7.0 (eg 9 or 12), then the patient is positive.
When the results of tests of blood sugar levels <6.1 (eg 3 or 4), then the patient is hypoglycaemic. When the blood sugar level test score ranges from 6-7, then the patient was negative for diabetes. SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES MELLITUS: • Poly Uriah (lots of urine). Rising blood glucose levels, causing a lot of piss, because glucose is higrokopis. • Polydipsia (much to drink). Frequent urination, resulted in his patient into feeling thirsty, because a lot of fluid that comes out malalui urine. • Polifagia (much to eat). Thirst and a lot of energy loss (weight dropped dramatically), so that the patient wants to eat more. Because they can not use the sugar in the blood, resulting in the body begins to burn fat to meet energy needs with metabolites of acetone, diacetate and hydroxy butyric acid, the blood becomes very acidic (ketoacidosis), which can cause fainting (comma) and the body odor of acetone COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES MELLITUS: Among other neuro muscular disorders such as: • Retinopathy: the emergence of a lump in arteries that block blood flow, and then be able to atero sclerosis which eventually causes hypertension and cardiac infarction. Occur pendara han and edema in the eye that can cause blindness menye • Poly neuropathy: feeling stuck, lost feeling in his legs and hands, there is a lump of pain in the feet, sores / ulcers difficult to recover in the fingers - legs and becomes gangrenous (dead tissue), amputated • Nephropathy: kidney damage, the release of albumin with urine • Pain in the calf after a road a few meters (claudicatio intermittent) WHO SHAPE RECOGNIZING 3 DIABETES MELLITUS, namely type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes (occurring during pregnancy) • Diabetic mellitus type 1 (type of child / adolescent) Attack patients aged <30 years (starting from 10-13 years). The existence of destruction of pancreatic beta cells, so that insulin production is reduced or lost all. As a result, body cells can not absorb glucose, glucose levels go up and expelled with urine. Causes: Excessive Auto immune to virus infection dalammembasmi virus, thus damaging Langerhans cells. And Factor descent). Until recently, type 1 diabetes can only be treated by using insulin, with careful monitoring of blood glucose levels through blood testing monitors. Basic treatment of type 1 diabetes, even for the earliest stages, is replacement of insulin. Without insulin, ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis can lead to coma and even death could result. Emphasis is also given on lifestyle adjustments (diet and exercise). In addition to injection, also made ​​possible through the provision of insulin pump, inhaled powder, as well as providing the required dose of insulin at mealtime. Treatment of type 1 diabetes must continue. Treatment will not affect normal activities if sufficient awareness, appropriate care, and discipline in the examination and treatment is started. The average glucose level for patients with type 1 diabetes should be as close as possible to the normal number (80-120 mg / dl, 4-6 mmol / l). Some physicians suggest up to 140-150 mg / dl (7-7.5 mmol / l) for those with problems with the lower figure. such as "frequent hypoglycemic events. " Figures above 200 mg / dl (10 mmol / l) is often accompanied by discomfort and urinating too often leading to dehydration. Figures above 300 mg / dl (15 mmol / l) usually require immediate treatment and can lead to ketoacidosis. Low levels of blood glucose, called hypoglycemia, can cause seizures or frequent loss of consciousness. Type 1 diabetes can not be prevented. Diet and exercise can not cure or prevent type 1 diabetes. • Diabetic mellitus type 2 (adult type) Attack patients from the age> 40 years. Many attacking fat people (over weight). The aging process Langerhans beta cells, insulin secretion decreases, blood glucose levels increased (hyper glycemia). Can be treated with oral diabetic medication (not insulin dependent), thus referred to as patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

Diabetic Type 2 usually, initially, treated by physical activity change (usually increase), diet (primarily reduction of carbohydrate intake), and through weight reduction. These can restore insulin sensitivity.

The next step, if necessary, treatment with oral (antidiabetic drugs). If this fails, insulin therapy will be required to maintain normal or near normal glucose levels. An orderly way of life of blood glucose checks is recommended in many cases, most particularly and most necessary when taking medication.

• Gestational diabetes mellitus - GDM (gestational age)
GDM involves a combination of responsiveness and expenditure that is not enough insulin, mimicking the type 2 diabetes in some cases. Occur during pregnancy and to recover after childbirth. GDM may be able to damage the health of the fetus or mother, and about 20-50% of women with GDM survive. Patients requiring medical supervision throughout the pregnancy.

DIABETES & Fasting
Patients who are quite restrained with the settings just do not have difficulty eating when fasting. Patients who are quite restrained with a single dose of the drug also had no difficulty to fast. Drugs given during fasting. For controlled with oral hypoglycemic drugs (Oho) high dose, the drug given at a dose before breaking dawn is greater than the dose. For those who use insulin, the insulin used the medium term given when breaking it. While patients must use insulin (DMTI) double dose, is recommended for not fasting in Ramadan.

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1 comment:

  1. Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes are the main types of diabetes.Taking the balance diet with regular exercise may prevent from the further damage.


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