Thursday, May 12, 2011

Vaccination and Immunization

Vaccination is administration of any vaccine or toxoid. So, what is vaccine? Vaccine is a preparation of modified or killed microorganisms or components of these microorganisms that when given to the body, stimulate an immune reaction. On the other side toxoid is modified bacterial toxin rendered non-toxic but has ability to stimulate formation of antitoxin.

Components of vaccine consist of :

1. Infection agents
2. Adjuvant
3. Other additives (preservative: thimerosal, antibiotics, buffer, suspending agent)

Goal of vaccination are make memory T helper cells, memory killer cells, and memory B cells.

So, how do vaccines work?

A vaccine simulates an infectious agent attack, so the body develops an immunological memory and can defend the body against dangerous exposure to the virulent agent. Vaccines are still given for three reasons : prevent infections that are common in other parts of the world, prevent common infections and prevent infections that could easily reemerge.
mecanism of vaccine work

mecanism of vaccine work

Important diseases to be controlled by vaccine are infectious diseases like pneumonia, infant meningitis, diarrhoeal, malaria, tuberculosis, viral, AIDS and cancer (gastric cancer, cervical cancer, hepatocarcinoma).

Classification of vaccine are :

* Live attenuated vaccine: Polio, BCG, MMR
* Killed vaccine: DPT
* Sub-unit vaccine: Hib, HepB

Example of vaccine combination are :

1. DPT/ DaPT (Diphteria, Pertussis, Tetanus)
2. MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella)
3. DPT-Hib (DPT- Hemophillus influenzae b)
4. DPT-HepB (DPT- Hepatitis B)
5. DPT-IPV (DPT- Inactivated Polio Virus)

Immunization is process of inducing or providing immunity artificially. Immunity divide to :

* Natural acquired immunity, immunity acquired when someone recover from illness
* Artificial acquired immunity, immunity acquired after someone had been immunized
* Herd or community immunity, conditional immunity of community when a critical number of people within community get vaccination

So, who have to receive immunization ? Baby, young children, adolescence, and elderly people .
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